Pharmaceutical intermediates Anesthesia Sedation Powder Chloral Hydrate For Somnifacient CAS: 302-17-0
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Chloral Hydrate Spec.
Product Name: Chloral Hydrate
Synonyms:1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-Ethanediol;2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-Ethanediol;2,2,2-Trichloroethane-1,1-Diol;2,2,2-Trichloroethane-1,1-Diol Hydrate;Trichloroacetaldehyde Hydrate;Trichloroacetaldehyde Monohydrate
Chemical Properties: Colourless crystals with a pentrating odour
Chloral Hydrate Usage:
Trichloroacetaldehyde Hydrate is a useful chemical reagent used as a sedative/hypnotic agent. Studies have shown that when used in pediatric sedation side effects such as hallucination, excessive slee p and seizures were observed. It is sometimes administered to patients being treated with cyclophosphamide and it is known to inhibit some aldehyde dehydrogenases.
Chloral hydrate Descrption
Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2. It is a colorless solid. It has limited use as a sedative and hypnotic pharmaceutical drug. It is also a useful laboratory chemical reagent and precursor. It is derived from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one equivalent of water.
Chloral hydrate is a nonbarbiturate sedative and hypnotic. It works by depressing the central nervous system (brain). This causes drowsiness and helps you to fall asleep. It is less likely to cause a slower breathing rate than barbiturate-type sedatives/hypnotics.
Chloral hydrate Application
Chloral hydrate is used for treating sleep disorders. It may be used to prevent symptoms of alcohol withdrawal or to treat existing withdrawal symptoms. It may also be used to produce sedation or sleep before certain procedures, or to relieve anxiety due to certain procedures or substance withdrawal. It may also be used to treat other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Chloral hydrate is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia and as a sedative before minor medical or dental treatment. It was largely displaced in the mid-20th century by barbiturates and subsequently by benzodiazepines. It was also formerly used in veterinary medicine as a general anesthetic. It is also still used as a sedative prior to EEG procedures, as it is one of the few available sedatives that does not suppress epileptiform discharges.
In therapeutic doses for insomnia, chloral hydrate is effective within 20 to 60 minutes. In humans it is metabolized within 7 hours into trichloroethanol and trichloroethanol glucuronide by erythrocytes and plasma esterases and into trichloroacetic acid in 4 to 5 days. It has a very narrow therapeutic window making this drug difficult to use. Higher doses can depress respiration and blood pressure.
Chloral hydrate dosing
Usual Adult Dose for Insomnia:
500 mg to 1 g 15 to 30 minutes before bedtime.
Usual Adult Dose for Sedation:
250 mg 3 times daily after meals, or
500 mg to 1 g 30 minutes before surgery
Usual Pediatric Dose for Insomnia:
Hypnotic: 50 mg/kg/dose at bedtime
Maximum dose: 1 g/dose
Total maximum: 1 g/day for infants and 2 g/day for children
Usual Pediatric Dose for Sedation:
Neonatal: Oral, Rectal:
For sedation prior to a procedure: 25 mg/kg. Repeat doses should be used with great caution as drug and metabolites accumulate with repeated use; toxicity has been reported after 3 days in a preterm neonate and after 7 days in a term neonate receiving chloral hydrate 40 to 50 mg/kg every 6 hours.
Infants and Children:
Sedation, anxiety: 25 to 50 mg/kg/day divided every 6 to 8 hours
Maximum dose: 500 mg/dose
Prior to EEG: 25 to 50 mg/kg/dose 30 to 60 minutes prior to EEG; may repeat in 30 minutes to a total maximum of 100 mg/kg or 1 g total for infants and 2 g total for children.
Sedation, nonpainful procedure: 50 to 75 mg/kg/dose 30 to 60 minutes prior to procedure; may repeat 30 minutes after initial dose if needed.
Maximum dose: 120 mg/kg or 1 g total for infants and 2 g total for children
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Pharmaceutical intermediates Anesthesia Sedation Powder Chloral Hydrate For Images